0x74696d

Exec from Your start.sh

January 25, 2021

At some point I noticed that some large portion of containers I've seen have some kind of start.sh script file doing some setup and then calling the actual application. Unfortunately a ton of these break features of the application server. Like the previous post on dropping signals, the way this typically manifests is the application server can't reload configuration or gracefully shut down.

Your standard user-friendly web frameworks run your code inside an application server. This is what opens up a port, accepts connections, and turns the data that comes into over those connections into some kind of "request object". Usually this will be a library separate from your framework with some of its guts written in C, and the framework will support a few options for servers. For Django this might be uwsgi or gunicorn, for Rails it might be puma or unicorn, and for Spring it might be Tomcat or Jetty.

Most of these application servers have a bunch of nice features that rely on signals, to reload the configuration, do graceful shutdown, add extra worker processes, or whatever. And then some unlucky developer gets handed a Dockerfile and gets told they have to use that. But they have to load some config or do some setup at start up. They look up how to do it and systemd has some ExecStartPre thing but this container stuff doesn't. And no one has ever bothered to teach them what this is supposed to look like because developers are only supposed to care about business logic anyways. So we end up with a process tree in the container like this:

$ ps f -o pid,comm
  PID COMMAND
    1 /bin/sh start.sh
    8  \_ /usr/local/bin/gunicorn
   21     \_ gunicorn worker
   22     \_ gunicorn worker

Now the orchestrator wants to tell the application to reload its config and it sends a SIGHUP to the container. By which we mean PID1 in the container, which is our start.sh script. It doesn't know anything about signals, so it dies and takes the application with it.

If you're using Docker you might have a tini init process in there as PID1 that'll pass signals to the start.sh script, but the result is the same because the signals never reach the application server.

$ ps f -o pid,comm
  PID COMMAND
    1 init
    7 \_ /bin/sh start.sh
   21     \_ /usr/local/bin/gunicorn
   22        \_ gunicorn worker
   23        \_ gunicorn worker

What we wanted to do is to call exec in our start.sh script. Then the process tree looks like this:

$ ps f -o pid,comm
  PID COMMAND
    1 /usr/local/bin/gunicorn
    7 \_ gunicorn worker
    8 \_ gunicorn worker

Doing this also means we can just set export environment variables in the shell script and they'll be set in our new application server process. A minimal working example looks like the following.

Here's our mock application:

func main() {
    c := make(chan os.Signal, 1)
    signal.Notify(c, syscall.SIGINT)

    for _, env := range os.Environ() {
        fmt.Println(env)
    }
    <-c
    fmt.Println("\ngraceful shutdown!")
}

Our minimal startup script:

#!/bin/sh
export SUPER_SECRET_FROM_VAULT=xyzzy
export PLATFORM=$(uname)
exec printenvvars

And our Dockerfile:

FROM busybox:1
COPY printenvvars /bin/printenvvars
COPY start.sh /bin/start.sh
ENTRYPOINT ["/bin/start.sh"]

We build that with docker build -t test . and now let's run it:

$ docker run test
HOSTNAME=741960aa5144
HOME=/root
SUPER_SECRET_FROM_VAULT=xyzzy
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin
PLATFORM=Linux
PWD=/
^C
graceful shutdown!

Note this will hang until we hit Ctrl-C, which sends SIGINT to PID1 in the container. At that point the channel in our application unblocks and we see the graceful shutdown message.

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© Timothy Gross

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